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“A Stew of Confusion and Hypocrisy Unworthy of Such a Proud Agency As The SEC”

A previous post (here) discussed the SEC’s long-standing practice of allowing defendants to settle enforcement actions “without admitting or denying” the SEC’s allegations.

It was noted that the SEC practice is not an FCPA specific issue, but it’s certainly an FCPA enforcement issue.

The previous post also discussed (as does “The Facade of FCPA Enforcement” – here) the SEC v. Bank of America case in which U.S. District Court Judge Jed Rakoff described the resolution as a “facade of enforcement.” Although not an FCPA case, the party’s briefs provide valuable insight into the same SEC enforcement procedures used in FCPA enforcement actions and the motivations of settling parties in a government enforcement action. Even the SEC noted in that case that “the terms of a reasonable settlement do not necessarily reflect the triumph of one party’s position over the other.”

The SEC’s “without admitting or denying” policy ran into Judge Rakoff again in a recent opinion and order (here) in SEC v. Vitesse Semiconducter Corp.

It is a must read for any SEC enforcement attorney, including FCPA attorneys.

Like a typical SEC FCPA enforcement action, in December 2010 (see here), the SEC filed a civil complaint against Vitesse (and others) and announced the same day that the enforcement action was settled.

Like a typical SEC FCPA enforcement action, Vitesse and the other defendants “without admitting or denying” the SEC’s allegations consented to entry of a final judgment permanently enjoining future securities law violations and ordering them to pay a civil penalties and disgorgement.

The opinion begins as follows.

“Pending before the Court is the joint proposal of plaintiff Securities and Exchange Commission (“S.E.C.”) and three of the five defendants – Vitesse Semiconductor Corporation (“Vitesse”), Yatin D. Mody, and Nicole R. Kaplan – to approve Consent Judgments that would resolve the case as to these defendants. The proposal raises difficult questions of whether the S.E.C.’s practice of accepting settlements in which the defendants neither admit nor deny the S.E.C.’s allegations meets the standards necessary for approval by a district court.”

Judge Rakoff then noted.

“Simultaneous with filing the Complaint on December 10, 2010, the S.E.C. – confident that the courts in this judicial district were no more than rubber stamps – filed proposed Consent Judgments against Vitesse, Mody, and Kaplan without so much as a word of explanation as to why the Court should approve these Consent Judgments or how the Consent Judgments met the legal standards the Court is required to apply before granting such approval.”

Judge Rakoff did find the financial and injunctive terms of the settlements “to be fair, reasonable, adequate, and in the public interest” but this issue was not the focus of his opinion.

Rather, Judge Rakoff launched into a discussion of the SEC’s “without admitting or denying” settlement policy.

Judge Rakoff noted.

“.. [T]here is a further aspect of the proposed Consent Judgments that is more troubling, to wit, the requested Court approval of settlements in which the defendants resolve the serious allegations of fraud brought against them “without admitting or denying the allegations of the Complaint.”

Judge Rakoff stated that, “to be sure, this is nothing new” and he sketched the history of this central feature of SEC enforcement practice.

Judge Rakoff noted that this settlement practice was “strongly desired” by defendants, but there “there were benefits for the SEC as well” including the fact that this practice has “made it easier for the SEC to obtain settlements.”

The end result of this enforcement practice, Judge Rakoff noted, “is a stew of confusion and hypocrisy unworthy of such a proud agency as the SEC.” He stated as follows.

“The defendant is free to proclaim that he has never remotely admitted the terrible wrongs alleged by the S.E.C.; but, by gosh, he had better be careful not to deny them either (though, as one would expect, his supporters feel no such compunction). Only one thing is left certain: the public will never know whether the S.E.C.’s charges are true, at least not in a way that they can take as established by these proceedings. This might be defensible if all that were involved was a private dispute between private parties. But here an agency of the United States is saying, in effect, “Although we claim that these defendants have done terrible things, they refuse to admit it and we do not propose to prove it, but will simply resort to gagging their right to deny it.” The disservice to the public inherent in such a practice is palpable.”

Judge Rakoff then stated as follows.

“… [T]he S.E.C.’s practice of permitting defendants to neither admit nor deny the charges against them remains pervasive, presumably for no better reason than that it makes the settling of cases easier. Although this Court must give substantial deference to the Commission’s views, even if only embodied in a practice rather than in a fully articulated policy, the Court is ultimately obliged to determine whether such a practice renders any given proposed Consent Judgment so unreasonable or contrary to the public interest as to warrant its disapproval.”

Because two of the individual defendants “have already admitted their guilt in the parallel criminal proceedings” and because Vitesse had already paid millions in a class action settlement, Judge Rakoff noted that “the public is not left to speculate about the truth of the essential charges.”

In conclusion, Judge Rakoff stated as follows. “Under these unusual circumstances but reserving for the future substantial questions of whether the Court can approve other settlements that involve the practice of “neither admitting nor denying” – the Court approves the proposed Consent Judgments.”

What would happen if a typical SEC FCPA enforcement action ever got before Judge Rakoff?

Robert Amaee on U.K. Bribery Act Guidance

Yesterday, in a much anticipated development, the United Kingdom Ministry of Justice released (here) its long awaited guidance (here) as to the U.K. Bribery Act – a delayed law now set to go live on July 1, 2011.

The U.K. Serious Fraud Office, the U.K. law enforcement agency tasked with enforcing the Bribery Act, also issued a release (here) and prosecuting guidance (here).

In this guest post, Robert Amaee (the former Head of Anti-Corruption and Proceeds of Crime Unit at the U.K. Serious Fraud Office and current counsel with Covington & Burling LLP in London – see here) provides insight and analysis of the U.K. developments.


The Bribery Act: Countdown to Implementation

The UK Ministry of Justice yesterday published its long awaited Bribery Act 2010 (the “Bribery Act”) guidance entitled “Guidance about procedures which relevant commercial organisations can put in place to prevent persons associated with them from bribing (section 9 of the Bribery Act 2010).” This publication marks the official start of a ninety day countdown to the implementation of the Bribery Act which will now be brought into force on 1 July 2011.

Companies that already have reviewed and updated their anti-bribery and corruption procedures will be ahead of the game but will still need to study the new guidance to see what, if any, further amendments may be required. Those who have yet to complete the process of updating their procedures to ensure compliance no doubt will draw a modicum of comfort from the fact that they have a further ninety days in which to digest and absorb the guidance and implement the necessary policies and procedures.

The comments made by the Minister of Justice, Ken Clarke QC MP, and the guidance itself aim to reassure companies that the Bribery Act will be enforced with common sense and pragmatism.

The Minister of Justice ushered in the guidance by saying that “[t]he ultimate aim of [the Bribery Act] is to make life difficult for the minority of organizations responsible for corruption, not to burden the vast majority of decent and law-abiding businesses.”

That is a message that prosecutors at the UK Serious Fraud Office (“SFO”) — the organisation tasked with leading enforcement efforts under the Bribery Act — have espoused for some time. What is less clear is whether the guidance provides any tangible assistance on some of the Bribery Act’s thorniest issues such as the UK’s jurisdiction over non-UK registered companies, the extent of liability for the actions of third parties and the boundary between acceptable corporate hospitality and a prosecutable bribe, particularly when foreign officials are concerned.

Government Policy and the Section 7 Corporate Offence

The guidance, as expected, focuses on six high level principles which companies will need to familiarise themselves with and which are supported by 11 case studies. It also sets out the Government policy in relation to the section 7 corporate offence stating that “[t]he objective of the [Bribery] Act is not to bring the full force of the criminal law to bear upon well run commercial organisations that experience an isolated incident of bribery on their behalf” and recognises that “no bribery prevention regime will be capable of preventing bribery at all times.” This part of the guidance already has attracted criticism from some respected quarters. (See here).

The guidance deals with the section 1 offences of bribing another person but the most noteworthy commentary relates to the section 6 offence (Bribery of foreign public officials). This section highlights the fact that bribery of a foreign public official could be prosecuted under the section 1 offence but that evidential difficulties in proving that a bribe was paid to a foreign public official with the intention to induce him or her to perform his or her role “improperly”, something the guidance calls “a mischief”, means that prosecutors would seek to rely on the section 6 offence which needs no such proof. The guidance goes on to make a number of assertions in relation to the interpretation of section 6 which bear closer scrutiny. The guidance says “…it is not the Government’s intention to criminalise behaviour where no such mischief occurs…” In other words it appears that the guidance may be advocating that the concept of “improper performance” be read into section 6. What is clear is that Parliament did not include any such wording in section 6 in clear contrast to section 1.

Corporate Hospitality and other Business Expenditure

In addressing the topic of corporate hospitality and other business expenditures, the guidance adopts what can only be described as a permissive tone. It codifies the comments that the Minister of Justice has made over the last few weeks and states that “[b]ona fide hospitality and promotional, or other business expenditure which seeks to improve the image of a commercial organisation, better to present products and services, or establish cordial relations, is recognised as an established and important part of doing business and it is not the intention of the Act to criminalise such behaviour” and goes on to endorse “reasonable” and “proportionate” hospitality and business expenditure.

In determining what is reasonable and proportionate, the guidance proposes taking into account “all of the surrounding circumstances” which include matters such as “the type and level of advantage offered, the manner and form in which the advantage is provide, and the level of influence the particular foreign public official has over awarding business”. It states that “the more lavish the hospitality or the higher the expenditure in relation to travel, accommodation or other similar business expenditure provided to a foreign public official, then, generally, the greater the inference that it is intended to influence the official to grant business or a business advantage in return.”

Much of this is elementary and already part of the mantra of compliance departments but the guidance goes further and appears to give the green light to certain interactions with foreign public officials which would, today, be closely and critically scrutinised by those responsible for compliance. As an example, the guidance envisages that the provision of flights, airport to hotel transfers, hotel accommodation, “fine dining” and tickets to an event for a foreign public official and his or her spouse are “unlikely to raise the necessary inference” to engage section 6 and therefore unlikely to violate the Act so long as there is a business rational for the trip.

A Question of Jurisdiction

The guidance makes it clear that “the courts will be the final arbiter as to whether an organisation ‘carries on a business’ in the UK taking into account of the particular facts in individual cases” and sets out the “Government’s intention” in relation to the phrase “carries on a business, or part of a business in the United Kingdom.” The thrust of the approach appears to be a reliance on a “common sense approach.”

In cases where there may be dispute, the guidance again defers to the courts as the final arbiter but says that “… the Government anticipates that applying a common sense approach would mean that organisations that do not have a demonstrable business presence in the United Kingdom would not be caught.” That much is uncontroversial but what follows has elicited a great deal of comment. The guidance states that “[t]he Government would not expect, for example, the mere fact that a company’s securities have been admitted to the UK Listing Authority’s Official list and therefore admitted to trading on the London Stock Exchange, in itself, to qualify that company as carrying on a business or part of a business in the UK and therefore falling within the definition of a ‘relevant commercial organisation’ for the purposes of section 7.” This commentary has been welcomed in some quarters but has been criticised by some as undermining the concept of a level playing field. (See here).

In the vast majority of cases, it will be clear whether a company is or is not carrying on a business or part of a business in the UK. There will, however, be cases where there is room for debate. If, for example, a non-UK registered company sets up a joint venture with a UK company and the joint venture is not registered in the UK, is the non-UK registered company carrying on a business or part of a business in the UK? What if the non-UK registered company then seconds an employee to work at the UK partner’s offices in London looking after the joint venture – is the non-UK registered company carrying on a business or part of a business in the UK? What if it sends 5 employees? Those are the type of intricacies that need to be worked through by company advisors and in the worst case prosecutors and the courts.

Associated Persons

When considering the potential liability imposed on a company by virtue of its supply chains or its involvement in a joint venture, the guidance introduces the concept of “the level of control”– a concept that does not appear in the Bribery Act — as one of the “relevant circumstances” that would be taken into account when seeking to determine if the person creating liability can be deemed to be an “associated person” i.e. someone who is performing services for or on behalf of a company that falls within the UK’s jurisdiction. The guidance states that “[t]he question of adequacy of bribery prevention procedures will depend in the final analysis on the facts of each case, including matters such as the level of control over the activities of the associated person and the degree of risk that requires mitigation.”

Facilitation Payments

In the run up to the publication of the guidance, there had been some suggestion that there may an attempt to ‘soften’ the approach to facilitation payments. This is not at all the case. While the Government has recognised the problems faced by commercial organisations in some parts of the world and in certain sectors, the guidance reiterates that there are no exemptions in the Act and sets out the OECD position that facilitation payments are corrosive and that exemptions create artificial distinctions that are “difficult to enforce, undermine corporate anti-bribery procedures, confuse anti-bribery communication with employees and other associated person, perpetuate an existing ‘culture’ of bribery and have the potential to be abused.” In circumstances where an individual has no alternative but to make a facilitation payment in order to “protect against loss of life, limb or liberty”, the guidance states that “the common law defence of duress is very likely to be available”. It stresses that it is a matter for prosecutorial discretion whether to prosecute an offence and defers to the Joint Prosecution Guidance when it comes to the “prosecution of facilitation payments.”


Companies will of course be pleased to have more guidance and will look to draw as much comfort as they can from the more ‘permissive’ tone of the MoJ guidance but global companies will not be looking at their UK exposure in isolation and will certainly not be rushing to relax their anti-bribery and corruption policies and procedures. It is not much comfort for a company to avoid prosecution in the UK for interactions with foreign government officials for example but to be in violation of their industry codes of conduct or be called to account in a US court for that same conduct. Global companies will continue to be mindful of their global exposure.

New ABA Global Anti-Corruption Task Force Website

The ABA’s Global Anti-Corruption Task Force, co-chaired by Andrew Boutros (Department of Justice) and Markus Funk (Perkins Coie), has launched a new website here.

The website “provides up-to-date, practitioner-oriented information and analysis on global anti-corruption matters” and the opportunity to publish peer-reviewed articles.

For today’s post, I am pleased to send you over to the website (here) for my essay “Corruption Is Bad … But What is It, and What Should Be Done?”

DOJ Files “Foreign Official” Response Brief In O’Shea Matter

With attention focused on the “foreign official” challenge in the Lindsey matter pending in the C.D. of California (a ruling may soon occur), the DOJ yesterday filed (here) its “foreign official” response brief in the O’Shea matter pending in the S.D. of Texas. See here for the prior post.

The DOJ’s response is substantively similar to its response in the Lindsey matter. See here for the prior post.

In its O’Shea response, the DOJ attaches the same declaration of Clifton Johnson (Assistant Legal Adviser for Law Enforcement and Intelligence in the Legal Adviser’s Office of the United States Department of State) as it filed in the Lindsey matter. See here for the prior post. As noted in this prior post, the judge in the Lindsey ordered the declaration be stricken.

Ball Corporation Quietly Resolves FCPA Enforcement Action

Magic has returned to the Butler campus for a second straight March. Perhaps it is not magic. Just hard work, a bend-but-don’t-break attitude, and poise under pressure. Whatever it is, Butler basketball continues to be an amazing story and teaches lessons beyond the hardwood.


Last week, Ball Corporation (here), a publicly traded company with divergent business segments including an aerospace and technologies segment that derived 96% of 2010 sales from contracts funded by various agencies of the U.S. federal government (see here), resolved an SEC enforcement action.

In an administrative cease and desist proceeding (here) the SEC found, in summary fashion, as follows.

“From July 2006 through October 2007, Ball, through its Argentine subsidiary Formametal, S.A., offered and paid at least ten bribes, totaling at least $106,749, to employees of the Argentine government to secure the importation of prohibited used machinery and the exportation of raw materials at reduced tariffs.”

“Although certain accounting personnel at Ball learned soon after Ball acquired Formametal in March 2006 that Formametal employees may have made questionable payments and caused other compliance problems before the acquisition, the Company failed to take sufficient action to ensure that such activities did not recur at Formametal after Ball took control of the Argentine company. Within months of Ball’s acquisition of Formametal, two Formametal executives—the then-Formametal President and then-Formametal Vice President of Institutional Affairs (hereinafter the “President” and “Vice President of Institutional Affairs,” respectively)—authorized improper payments to Argentine officials. The true nature of the payments was mischaracterized as ordinary business expenses on Formametal’s books and records and went undetected for over a year.”

As set forth in the SEC’s findings, Ball acquired Formanmetal in March 2006 and the wholly-owned subsidiary’s (a manufacturer of aerosol cans) financial results are reported on a consolidated basis in Ball’s financial statements.

According to the SEC’s findings, the improper payments were in connection with equipment imports, copper scrap export waivers.

As to equipment imports, the SEC found as follows.

“Formametal paid bribes totaling over $100,000 in 2006 and 2007 to secure the importation of equipment for use in its manufacturing process. Formametal’s President authorized at least two of these payments. In most cases, the bribes were paid to induce government customs officials to circumvent Argentine laws prohibiting the importation of used equipment and parts. The bribes often appeared on invoices from a non-governmental customs agent for Formametal. The payments were invoiced as separate line items described inaccurately as “fees for customs assistance,” “customs advisory services,” “verification charge,” or simply “fees,” were invoiced in addition to other customs-related fees, and were sometimes in rounded peso amounts. To further obscure that the payments were really bribes, Formametal posted the payments inaccurately identified as “customs advice” or “professional fees” to an “Other Expenses” account or in some instances to an account named for the related equipment.”

As to copper scrap export waivers, the SEC found as follows.

“Formametal paid a bribe that its President authorized in October 2007 in an attempt to bypass high government duties imposed on copper scrap exports. These duties, which were generally 40 percent of the value of the copper, were imposed by Argentina in an effort to discourage export sales of domestically produced copper and copper scraps. The President estimated the additional profit from exporting this copper scrap with the export duty waivers versus selling it inside Argentina would be approximately $1.5 million annually.”

“For six months prior to August 2007, Formametal unsuccessfully sought to gain government approval to export the scrap without the customarily high duties. After giving up on obtaining the waiver legitimately, on October 18, 2007, Formametal disbursed $4,821, representing the first of five bribe installments authorized by its President to obtain an export duty waiver. The payment was funneled through Formametal’s third party customs agent. Obscuring that the transaction was a bribe, Formametal inaccurately recorded the payment as “Advice fees for temporary merchandise exported” in an “Other Expenses” account. Although the President believed that the payments were requested by a customs official and would result in a copper scrap export duty waiver, no copper scrap export shipments were made pursuant to the improper payment.”

As to Ball’s internal controls, the SEC found as follows.

“Ball’s and Formametal’s weak internal controls, which included importing equipment into Argentina in 2006 and 2007 without appropriate invoices and documentation, made it difficult to detect that the subsidiary was repeatedly violating Argentine law through the payment of bribes. Ball’s weak internal controls also factored into the Company’s failure to prevent further abuses at Formametal, after Ball accountants learned of a bribe paid by Formametal to import machinery for use in its manufacturing process. As a result, Formametal continued to make improper payments during 2007.”

“Further, Ball lacked sufficient internal controls to bring about effective changes after information available to Ball’s executives indicated anti-bribery compliance problems at Formametal. For example, key personnel responsible for dealing with customs officials remained at Formametal, even though external due diligence performed on Formametal suggested that Formametal officials may have previously authorized questionable payments.”

Based on the above findings, the SEC found that Ball violated the FCPA’s books and records and internal control provisions.

The SEC’s order notes that the “Commission considered remedial acts promptly undertaken by Respondent, Respondent’s voluntary disclosure of these matters to the Commission, and cooperation afforded the Commission staff.”

Without admitting or denying the SEC’s findings, Ball agreed to a cease and desist order prohibiting future FCPA book and records and internal controls violations and agreed to pay a $300,000 civil penalty.

The last paragraph of the SEC order states “that the Commission is not imposing a civil penalty in excess of $300,000 based upon [Ball’s] cooperation in a Commission investigation and related enforcement action.”

Charles Smith (Skadden – here) represented Ball.

SEC FCPA enforcement actions, including administrative actions, are often announced with a SEC press release. However, there was no SEC press release issued last week as to the Ball enforcement action.

Ball’s most recent annual report, filed February 28, 2011, stated as follows.

“As previously reported, the company investigated potential violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in Argentina, which came to our attention on or about October 15, 2007. The Department of Justice and the SEC were also made aware of this matter, on or about the same date. The Department of Justice informed us in 2009that it had completed its investigation and would not bring charges. The SEC’s staff has concluded its investigation and a resolution is expected during 2011. Based on our investigation to date, we do not believe this matter involved senior management or management or other employees who have significant roles in internal control over financial reporting.”

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