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Issues To Consider From The Samsung Heavy Industries Enforcement Action


This prior post highlighted the DOJ’s recent net $37.5 million Foreign Corrupt Practices Act enforcement action against Samsung Heavy Industries (a South Korea-based company with a branch office in Houston) focused on its relationship with Pride International (now part of Valaris plc) through which it sold a drillship to Petrobras.

This post highlights additional issues to consider from the enforcement action.

What About Pride?

The primary beneficiary, it would seem, of the conduct alleged in the SHI enforcement action is the “Chartering Company” described by the DOJ as an “offshore oil drilling company headquartered in Houston, Texas which provided contract drilling and related services to oil and gas companies.”

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The FCPA Blog Continues To Muddy The Conversational Waters

muddy water2

Call me old-fashioned, but I believe that FCPA information sources should strive to make things more clear and not muddy the conversational waters.

Yet, the FCPA Blog seems to have a knack for the later (e.g. sorry FCPA Blog, but Legg Mason did not pay $2.4 million to the SEC, but rather $34.5 million) including its posts on so-called “declinations” which are then frequently flung into the FCPA’s echo chamber.

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Friday Roundup


Checking in on Wal-Mart’s professional fees and expenses, still pouting, scrutiny alerts and updates, and for the reading stack.  It’s all here in the Friday roundup.

Wal-Mart’s Professional Fees and Expenses

In its recent 3Q FY2016 earnings call Wal-Mart stated:

“FCPA and compliance related costs were approximately $30 million, comprised of $22 million for ongoing inquiries and investigations, and $8 million for our global compliance program and organizational enhancements.”

Doing the math, Wal-Mart’s 3Q FCPA and compliance-related costs is approximately $470,000 per working day.

Over the past approximate four years, I have tracked Wal-Mart’s quarterly disclosed pre-enforcement action professional fees and expenses. While some pundits have ridiculed me for doing so, such figures are notable because, as has been noted in prior posts and in my article “Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Ripples,” settlement amounts in an actual FCPA enforcement action are often only a relatively minor component of the overall financial consequences that can result from corporate FCPA scrutiny.  Pre-enforcement action professional fees and expenses are typically the largest (in many cases to a degree of 3, 5, 10 or higher than settlement amounts) financial hit to a company under FCPA scrutiny.

While $470,000 per working day remains eye-popping, Wal-Mart’s recent figure suggests that the company’s pre-enforcement action professional fees and expenses have crested as the figures for the past eight quarters have been approximately $470,000, $516,000, $563,000, $640,000, $662,000, $855,000, $1.1 million and $1.3 million per working day.

In the aggregate, Wal-Mart’s disclosed pre-enforcement professional fees and expenses are as follows.

FY 2013 = $157 million.

FY 2014 = $282 million.

FY 2015  = $173 million.

FY 2016 = $93 million (through the first three quarters).

Still Pouting 

This prior post discussed why SNC-Lavalin should be grateful about various aspects of Canada’s legal system (compared to the U.S.) and not pout. Namely, that Canada does not offer deferred prosecution agreements and enforcement authorities must actually prove cases to prevail.

As noted here, with a new government in Ottawa, SNC-Lavalin’s new CEO continues the pout.

“SNC-Lavalin Group Inc.’s CEO wants the new federal government to allow companies to settle corporate corruption cases — as what happens in the United States and United Kingdom — so that Canadian firms can remain competitive. In his first speech since taking control of Canada’s largest engineering company last month, Neil Bruce said federal corruption charges laid against a few of SNC-Lavalin’s legal entities unfairly point the finger at 40,000 employees who did nothing wrong. Instead, Canada should allow corporate settlements outside the court system so that SNC-Lavalin and other Canadian businesses are not at a disadvantage when competing against rival firms in other G7 countries, Bruce said.


The company has said it will plead not guilty to the charges but is willing to pay a fine for the alleged transgressions of former employees.”

Scrutiny Alerts and Updates

Affinia Group

As noted in this May 2015 post, Affinia Group (a North Carolina based company involved in design, manufacture, distribution and marketing of industrial grade products and services, including extensive offerings of aftermarket parts for automotive and heavy-duty vehicles) has been under FCPA scrutiny and the company disclosed:

“As previously disclosed, the Company conducted a review of certain allegations arising in connection with business operations involving its subsidiaries in Poland and Ukraine. The allegations raised issues involving potential improper payments in connection with governmental approvals, permits, or other regulatory areas and possible conflicts of interest. The Company’s review was supervised by the Audit Committee of Affinia’s Board of Directors and conducted with the assistance of outside professionals. Affinia voluntarily self-reported on these matters to the U.S. Department of Justice and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and cooperated fully with the U.S. government.  The U.S. Department of Justice has advised that it has decided to decline to prosecute the Company in this matter.”

Several companies have been under scrutiny based on alleged improper relationships with Petrobras.  Three such companies: Ensco, Transocean, and Vantage Group recently  made disclosures.


The company recently disclosed:

“Pride International, Inc. (“Pride”), a company we acquired in 2011, commenced drilling operations in Brazil during 2001 and, in 2008, entered into a drilling contract with Petrobras for DS-5, a rig Pride had ordered from a shipyard in South Korea.

Beginning in 2006, Pride conducted periodic compliance reviews of its business with Petrobras, and, after the acquisition, Ensco conducted similar compliance reviews, the most recent of which commenced in early 2015 after media reports were released regarding ongoing investigations of various kickback and bribery schemes in Brazil involving Petrobras.

While conducting our compliance review, we became aware of an internal audit report by Petrobras alleging irregularities in relation to DS-5 – specifically, that Petrobras overpaid under the drilling contract. We believe this allegation is inaccurate, as publicly available data show that the contract’s compensation terms were in line with other contracts signed by Petrobras and other customers with our competitors during the same timeframe (late 2007 and early 2008). We provided this information to Petrobras in June 2015. We continue to operate DS-5 under its existing contract. In addition, all our other rigs contracted to Petrobras – ENSCO 6001, 6002, 6003 and 6004 – continue to work under their contracts.

Upon learning of the Petrobras internal audit report, our Audit Committee appointed independent counsel to lead an investigation into the alleged irregularities. Subsequently, the internal audit report and the alleged irregularities were referenced in Brazilian court documents connected to the prosecution of former Petrobras directors and employees as well as certain other third parties, including a former marketing consultant who provided services to Pride in connection with DS-5. The former marketing consultant entered into a plea agreement with the Brazil authorities. This plea agreement was referenced in a Brazilian court proceeding relating to a project for a competitor having no connection to us. This court proceeding document states that another court action would be made public in due course with respect to DS-5; to date no further proceedings relating to DS-5 have been released.

Independent counsel, under the direction of our Audit Committee, has substantially completed the investigation of these allegations by reviewing and analyzing available documents and correspondence and interviewing current and former employees involved in the contracting of DS-5 as well as the former marketing consultant.

To date, our Audit Committee has found no evidence that Pride or Ensco or any of their current or former employees were aware of or involved in any wrongdoing, and our Audit Committee has found no evidence linking Ensco or Pride to any illegal acts committed by our former marketing consultant. Although the investigation is substantially complete, we cannot predict whether any new or additional allegations will be made and what impact those allegations will have on the timing or conclusions of the investigation. Our Audit Committee will examine any new or additional allegations and the facts and circumstances surrounding them. To date, we have not been contacted by Brazil authorities, and no authority has alleged wrongdoing by Pride or Ensco or any of their current or former employees. In June and July 2015, we voluntarily contacted the SEC and the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”), respectively, to advise them of this matter and our Audit Committee’s independent investigation, and we provided them an update on the investigation in September 2015. We cannot predict whether any governmental authority will seek to investigate this matter, or if a proceeding were opened, the scope or ultimate outcome of any such investigation. If the SEC or DOJ determines that violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”) have occurred, or if any governmental authority determines that we have violated applicable anti-bribery laws, they could seek civil and criminal sanctions, including monetary penalties, against us, as well as changes to our business practices and compliance programs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.”

As highlighted in this previous post, in 2010 Pride International resolved a $56 million FCPA enforcement action based on alleged conduct in Nigeria, India, Mexico, Venezuela and other countries.


The company recently disclosed:

“We are currently investigating allegations made by a former Petrobras employee relating to the award of a drilling services contract to us. These allegations were made public through an investigation being conducted by Brazilian authorities in response to allegations of corrupt practices involving Petrobras business. To date, we have not identified any wrongdoing by any of our employees or agents in connection with our business in Brazil. We will continue to investigate these types of allegations and, if contacted, will cooperate with governmental authorities. Through the process of monitoring and proactive investigation, we strive to ensure no violation of our policies, code of integrity or law has, or will, occur; however, there can be no assurance as to the outcome of these matters.”

As highlighted in this previous post, in 2010 Transocean resolved a $20.7 million FCPA enforcement action based on alleged conduct in Nigeria.

Vantage Drilling

The company recently disclosed:

“In July 2015, we became aware of media reports that the Brazilian agent that we used in the contracting of the Titanium Explorer drillship, Mr. Padilha, had entered into a plea arrangement with the Brazilian authorities in connection with his role in obtaining bribes for former Petrobras executives.  Mr. Padilha, who simultaneously has represented several international companies in their contracts with Petrobras, provided evidence to the Brazilian prosecutors of an alleged bribery scheme between former Petrobras executives and Mr. Su, a former member of our Board of Directors and a significant shareholder.  Mr. Su was the sole owner of the company that owned the Titanium Explorer at the time the alleged bribe was paid.  At the same time we learned of Mr. Padilha’s plea agreement, we voluntarily contacted the SEC and the DOJ to advise them of these recent developments. We subsequently terminated his advisory contract with us.  Our internal and independent investigations, which are still ongoing, to date have found no evidence of wrongdoing by our employees or participation in any manner with the inappropriate acts alleged to have been conducted by Mr. Padilha.

We cannot predict whether any governmental authority will seek to investigate this matter, or if a proceeding were opened, the scope or ultimate outcome of any such investigation. If the SEC or DOJ determines that we have violated the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”), or if any governmental authority determines that we have violated applicable anti-bribery laws, they could seek civil and criminal sanctions, including monetary penalties, against us, as well as changes to our business practices and compliance programs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.”

Reading Stack

“The (Unintended) Consequences of the Yates Memo” here from Kurt Wolfe (Allen & Overy).

“The Yates Memo’s Chilling Effect on FCPA Self-Disclosure” here from Alison Tanchyk and Melissa Coates (Morgan, Lewis & Bockius). “Ironically, the unintended consequence [of the Yates Memo] may be fewer companies opting to self-disclose FCPA concerns, leading to fewer individual corruption prosecutions.”


A good weekend to all.

Acquiring a Deferred Prosecution Agreement

In November 2010, Pride International Inc. was one of several companies to resolve a coordinated FCPA enforcement action involving (at least in part) the use of Panalpina services.

As noted in this prior post, the Pride enforcement action included not only Nigeria – Panalpina related conduct, but also conduct relating to contract extensions in Venezuela, bribing an administrative law judge in India, customs duties in Mexico, as well as other improper conduct in other countries.

The enforcement action involved both a DOJ and SEC component. Total settlement amount was approximately $56.2 million ($32.6 million criminal fine via a DOJ plea agreement and deferred prosecution agreement; $23.5 million in disgorgement and prejudgment interest via a SEC settled complaint).

The three year DPA (here) imposed on Pride a host of compliance undertakings including reporting to the DOJ on an annual basis (during the term of the DPA) “on its progress and experience in maintaining and, as appropriate, enhancing its compliance policies and procedures.”

On February 7th, Pride announced (here) a definitive merger agreement by which U.K. based Ensco (plc) will acquire Pride in a cash and stock transaction expected to close in the second quarter of 2011. The release states as follows. “The transaction will create the second largest offshore driller in the world with 74 rigs spanning all of the strategic, high-growth markets around the globe.”

So what will happen to Pride’s DPA obligations?

A common clause in DPA’s is a sale or merger clause.

In the Pride DPA, it states as follows.

Sale or Merger of Pride International

“Pride International agrees that in the event it sells, merges, or transfers all or substantially all of its business operations as they exist as of the date of this Agreement, whether such sale is structured as a stock or asset sale, merger or transfer (including the sale, merger, or transfer of unincorporated branches), it shall include in any contract for sale, merger or transfer a provision binding the purchaser, or any successor in interest thereto, to the obligations described in this Agreement.”

Sure enough, Section 5.15 of the “Agreement and Plan of Merger” (here) states as follows.

“Deferred Prosecution Agreement. Effective as of the Effective Time, Parent [Ensco] agrees to be bound, and the Surviving Entity shall continue to be bound, by the obligations of the Company [Pride] set forth in the Deferred Prosecution Agreement, dated November 4, 2010, between the Company and the U.S. Department of Justice, to the extent required thereby.”

Pride’s FCPA compliance obligations and undertakens may not be the only FCPA-related issues on Ensco’s plate.

Ensco has ADR’s traded on the U.S. market and “following disclosures by other offshore service companies announcing internal investigations involving the legality of amounts paid to and by customs brokers in connection with temporary importation of rigs and vessels into Nigeria, the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors and management commenced an internal investigation in July 2007.”

Ensco’s most recent quarterly filing (here) states as follows.

“Our internal investigation has essentially been concluded. Discussions were held with the authorities to review the results of the investigation and discuss associated matters during 2009 and the first half of 2010. On May 24, 2010, we received notification from the SEC Division of Enforcement advising that it does not intend to recommend any enforcement action. We expect to receive a determination by the United States Department of Justice in the near-term. Although we believe the United States Department of Justice will take into account our voluntary disclosure, our cooperation with the agency and the remediation and compliance enhancement activities that are underway, we are unable to predict the ultimate disposition of this matter, whether we will be charged with violation of the anti-bribery, recordkeeping or internal accounting control provisions of the FCPA or whether the scope of the investigation will be extended to other issues in Nigeria or to other countries. We also are unable to predict what potential corrective measures, fines, sanctions or other remedies, if any, the United States Department of Justice may seek against us or any of our employees.”

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